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Juros do cartão de crédito e cheque especial sobem em dezembro, mas tem queda em 2018

Juros do cartão de crédito e cheque especial sobem em dezembro, mas tem queda em 2018
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Taxa do cartão de crédito rotativo passou de 279,8%, em novembro, para 285,4% ao ano, em dezembro

Os bancos elevaram os juros os juros médios cobrados no no cartão de crédito rotativo e no cheque especial em dezembro do ano passado, mas, em todo ano de 2018, reduziram as taxas cobradas de seus clientes. Os dados foram divulgados pelo Banco Central (BC).

O juro médio do cartão de crédito rotativo para pessoas físicas subiu de 279,8% ao ano, em novembro, para 285,4% ao ano, em dezembro. Em 2018, porém, a taxa caiu 46,7 pontos percentuais. No fechamento de 2017, os juros do cartão somavam 332,1% ao ano.

Já a taxa média do cheque especial, de acordo com a instituição, avançou de 305,7 % ao ano, em novembro, para 312,6% ao ano, em dezembro. No acumulado de 2018, entretanto, o juro recuou 10,4 pontos percentuais, pois somou 323% ao ano no fim de 2017.

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Apesar da queda no ano passado, essas taxas ainda seguem elevadas na comparação com outros países e também com outras linhas de crédito ofertadas pelos bancos. A recomendação de economistas é de que os clientes bancários não usem essas modalidades, ou que, se necessário, as utilizem por um período de tempo muito limitado.

No ano passado, os juros bancários recuaram mais do que a taxa Selic – fixada pelo Banco Central a cada 45 dias para controlar a inflação. A taxa básica de juros iniciou 2018 em 7% ao ano e recuou para 6,5% ao ano em março – patamar no qual ainda está até os dias atuais. Nesse caso, a queda foi de 0,5 ponto percentual em 2018.

Mesmo assim, os juros bancários ainda seguem em patamar elevado para padrões internacionais, o que inibe o consumo e também os investimentos na economia brasileira. Esse é um dos problemas a serem enfrentados na economia pela gestão do presidente Jair Bolsonaro.

Dados do BC mostram que os quatro maiores conglomerados bancários do país detinham, no fim de 2017, 78% de todas as operações de crédito feitas por instituições financeiras no país.

No ano passado, o governo anunciou medidas para reduzir os juros do rotativo do cartão de crédito. A federação que representa os bancos no país anunciou novas regras para uso do cheque especial, que entraram em vigor em julho deste ano.

Juros bancários médios

Apesar do aumento dos juros do cheque especial e do cartão de crédito rotativo em dezembro, os números do BC mostram que houve queda nos juros médios das instituições com recursos livres (sem contar BNDES, crédito rural e imobiliário) em novembro.

a taxa média total (pessoa física e jurídica) passou de 37,9% ao ano em novembro para 35,6% ao ano em dezembro; no ano, ela recuou 4,7 pontos percentuais, pois somava 40,3% ao ano no fechamento de 2017;os juros nas operações com pessoas físicas passaram de 51,6% ao ano, em novembro, para 48,9% ao ano, em dezembro; no acumulado do ano taxa caiu 6,1 pontos percentuais. Estava em 55% ao ano no fim do ano passado;a taxa cobrada das empresas ficou estável caiu de 20,3% ao ano em novembro para 18,8% ao ano em dezembro; e, no ano de 2018, recuou 2,8 pontos percentuais (totalizava 21,6% ao ano no fechamento de 2017).

Spread bancário

Com a queda dos juros médios de todas as operações das instituições financeiras, o chamado "spread bancário" (diferença entre o que os bancos pagam pelos recursos e o que cobram de seus clientes) recuou em novembro e, também, no ano de 2018.

No caso das operações com pessoas físicas e com empresas, o "spread" passou de 29,9 pontos percentuais em novembro para 27,8 pontos em dezembro. No fim de 2017, somava 31,8 pontos. Para pessoas físicas, passou de 43,3 pontos em novembro para 40,7 pontos em dezembro. No fim de 2017, estava em 46,1 pontos percentuais. Apesar da queda no ano passado, o spread bancário ainda está em patamar elevado para padrões internacionais.

O "spread" é composto pelo lucro dos bancos, pela taxa de inadimplência, por custos administrativos, pelos depósitos compulsórios (que são mantidos no Banco Central) e pelos tributos cobrados pelo governo federal, entre outros.

Banco Central do Brasil Jair Bolsonaro var allowInteraction = 1; window.cdaaas.SETTINGS = Object.assign({COMMENTS_ALLOW_INTERACTION: allowInteraction}, window.cdaaas.SETTINGS);

Fonte: G1

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